Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is a long-term or chronic illness characterized by blood sugar levels (glucose) which is way above normal. Glucose is essential for our health because it is the main source of energy for the brain as well as the cells that make up the muscles and tissues in our body.
This disease has two main types, namely, diabetes type 1 and type 2.
Indonesia itself is included in the 10 largest country diabetics. In the year 2013, diabetics in Indonesia is estimated at about 8.5 million people with an age range of 20-79 years (quoted from the International Diabetes Federation). But less than 50% of those who are aware of it.
What Are The Symptoms Of Diabetes?
It is very important for us to know the early symptoms of diabetes. Good for a high risk as well as for those who feel healthy and do not have a history of or potential for severe diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes can develop quickly in the past few weeks, even a few days only. While many type 2 diabetics who do not realize that they had suffered from diabetes for many years because the symptoms tend to be non-specific. Some of the symptoms of diabetes type 1 and type 2 include:
- Frequent thirst.
- Frequent urination, especially at night.
- Extreme hunger.
- The decline in weight without a clear reason.
- Decreased muscle mass.
- There are ketones in the urine. Ketones are a byproduct of the metabolism of muscle and fat that occurs when insulin production is not enough.
- The views blur.
- The old wounds healed.
- Often have infections, for example on the gums, skin, vagina, or urinary tract.
If you experience any of these symptoms, immediately checking yourself to your doctor. Early detection allows us to prevent the increased severity of the diabetic condition.
The influence of the Hormones Insulin and Diabetes
The entire cell in the human body needs glucose to be able to work normally. The levels of sugar in the blood is usually controlled by the hormone insulin produced by the pancreas, the organ that is located behind the stomach.
But the pancreas organ belonging to the diabetics were not able to produce the hormone insulin according to needs of the body. Without insulin, the cells of the body cannot absorb and metabolize glucose into energy.
Overview of Diabetes type 1
Type 1 diabetics are very dependent on insulin because the sufferer's immune system will attack and destroy the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin. This triggered an increase in glucose levels so the damage to the organs of the body. Until now, the cause of type 1 diabetes is not known for sure.
This type of diabetes sufferers are generally aged under 40 years old, a usually appear in adolescence or childhood. Therefore, diabetes type 1 diabetes is also called as children.
Type 1 diabetes occurs less frequently than with type 2 diabetes. Among the 10 people are diabetics, is estimated to be only about 2 people who have type 1.
In addition to insulin injections should receive per day, type 1 diabetes sufferers are also advised to keep the glucose levels in the blood to keep it balanced. For example, by applying a healthy eating pattern and undergo blood tests routinely.
Overview of type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a type of diabetes that is more common. About 90 percent of diabetes patients in the world have diabetes type.
This type of diabetes is caused by a lack of insulin production in the body or the body's cells become less sensitive to insulin. Kekurangpekaan cells of the body are known as the resistance to insulin.
Symptoms in people with diabetes this type can usually be controlled with a healthy diet and monitor the levels of glucose in the blood. But, stay alert because this disease will continue to thrive in the body and gradually steps you will need treatment.
Type 2 diabetes is often linked to obesity. It's not everyone who suffered from obesity would automatically suffer from type 2 diabetes. However, the higher a person's body mass index, then the risk of this type of diabetes is also on the rise. Diabetes due to obesity generally strikes seniors.
The Risks Of Gestational Diabetes
Diabetes also often attacked the expectant mother. There are some women who have levels of glucose in the blood is very high during pregnancy, so that their bodies cannot produce enough insulin to subjugate them. Diabetes is known as gestational diabetes can occur in about 15 to 18 people among 100 women who are pregnant.
Type 1 diabetics who are pregnant will also have a high risk because it can impact on the mother and fetus. It is very important for pregnant diabetics to maintain balance in their blood sugar levels.
Mothers who are pregnant should more closely monitor the blood sugar levels in the second trimester (weeks 14-26). During that pregnancy diabetes generally develops and then disappear after childbirth. However, the risk of type 2 diabetes in women who have experienced gestational diabetes is about three times higher than the population in General.